What Happen To Your Sample?
Every sample you provide is collected, analysed and investigated according to international rules set out in the World Anti-Doping Code. These rules are designed to protect your rights, and ensure the process is the same no matter where you are tested in the world.
The laboratory that has analysed your A Sample will report the results simultaneously to the Anti-Doping Organisation, such as Anti-Doping Singapore (ADS), and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Your B Sample is frozen and analysed if there is an Adverse Analytical Finding on your A Sample. Note that the samples analysed are identified by code numbers and not athlete names.
Three possible outcomes may arise from sample analysis - a Negative Analytical Finding, an Atypical Finding or an Adverse Analytical Finding.
NEGATIVE ANALYTICAL FINDING
A negative test result will be issued by the laboratory if no prohibited substance or evidence of the use of a prohibited method is detected in the sample.
The body naturally produces some prohibited substances, such as testosterone. The presence of such substances outside what is considered to be a normal range in the A Sample may result in the laboratory reporting an Atypical Finding.
For such cases, ADS will determine if:
- a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) has been granted
- there has been a departure from the International Standard for Testing or International Standard for Laboratories that may have caused the atypical finding.
Further investigations will follow if the review reveals that it was not a TUE or departure from procedures that caused the atypical finding.
The athlete will only be notified when ADS has completed its investigations and decided whether it will bring the atypical finding forward as an adverse analytical finding. No further action will be taken if there is no evidence of use of a prohibited substance. ADS will report the atypical finding as an adverse analytical finding, if there is evidence of use.
ADVERSE ANALYTICAL FINDING
If the laboratory reports an adverse analytical finding in the A Sample, ADS will determine whether:
- a TUE has been granted
- there has been a departure from the International Standard for Testing or International Standard for Laboratories that may have caused the adverse analytical finding.
ADS will report the outcome of the review to the Athlete if the review reveals that it was not a TUE or departure from procedures that caused the adverse analytical finding.
ANTI-DOPING RULE VIOLATIONS
The detection of a prohibited substance in a sample is only one of many ways that can result in an anti-doping rule violation. Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations that can result in a sanction.
An athlete may be deemed to have committed an anti-doping rule violation if they:
- Have a prohibited substance or its metabolites in their urine or blood sample;
- Use, or attempt to use, a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method;
- Evade, refuse or fail to submit to sample collection after notification of testing without compelling reason;
- Fail to provide accurate athlete whereabouts information resulting in any combination of 3 missed tests and/or filing failures within a 12-month period;
- Tamper, or attempt to tamper, with any part of the doping control process;
- Possess a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method;
- Traffick, or attempt to traffick, a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method;
- Administer, or attempt to administer, a prohibited substance and/or prohibited method to any athlete;
- Complicity: assist, encourage, aid, abet, conspire or cover up an anti-doping rule violation; and
- Prohibited Association: associate with a person such as a coach, doctor or physio who has been found guilty of a criminal or disciplinary offence equivalent to a doping violation
- Acts by an Athlete or Other Person to Discourage or Retaliate against Reporting to Authorities
While items 1 to 4 apply to athletes, items 5 to 11 applies to athletes and athlete support personnel.
An athlete support personnel, such as a Coach, Team Manager or Doctor, may also be sanctioned if they are deemed to have violated any anti-doping rule.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has published a global list of Athlete Support Personnel who are currently suspended from working with Athletes or other Persons. For the updated list, please refer to the WADA Prohibited Association List.
NOTIFICATION AFTER INITIAL REVIEW
If the initial review does not justify the Adverse Analytical Finding, ADS will notify the athlete in writing of a possible anti-doping rule violation, and the notice issued will detail:
- The in-competition or out-of-competition doping control date and time
- The adverse analytical finding (if applicable)
- The anti-doping rule violation the athlete is charged with committing
- A summary of the facts and evidence used to support the charge
- Notice of provisional suspension to be imposed on the athlete (if applicable)
• The consequences if it is established that the athlete has committed the anti-doping rule violation charged
- The athlete’s right to promptly request the analysis of the B Sample (if applicable)
- The right of the athlete and/or athlete representative to attend the B Sample opening and analysis (if applicable)
- The athlete’s right to request copies of the A and B Sample laboratory report
- The other parties that will be notified
B SAMPLE ANALYSIS
The athlete has the right to request the analysis of the B Sample if the charge of possible anti-doping rule violation is based on an adverse analytical finding. ADS will notify the athlete of the date and time for the B Sample analysis. The athlete or the athlete representative has the right to attend the identification, opening and analysis of the B Sample. Where neither the athlete nor athlete representative attends, ADS or the laboratory shall appoint an independent person to witness the B Sample analysis.
If the B Sample does not confirm the A Sample then the entire test shall be considered as negative and the charge will be withdrawn.
If the B Sample analysis confirms the adverse analytical finding in respect of the A Sample, then the matter shall proceed to a hearing.
Once the athlete has received notification following the initial review, ADS will notify the respective National Sports Association (NSA), who will impose a provisional suspension on the athlete.
A provisional suspension can only be imposed if the athlete is given an opportunity for a provisional or an expedited hearing.
Where a provisional suspension has been imposed in relation to an A Sample adverse analytical finding, and the athlete has requested that the B Sample be analysed, and where the B Sample does not confirm the A Sample analysis, then the provisional suspension shall be rescinded immediately.
An athlete that is charged with an anti-doping rule violation has the right to a fair hearing. The anti-doping organization that initiated sample collection is responsible for determining what sanctions will apply to each individual case.
Where the ADS Anti-Doping Rules apply, the hearing will be held before the National Anti-Doping Disciplinary Committee (NADC). The NADC is a national tribunal body independent of ADS and the National Sports Associations (NSA), and is appointed by the Ministry of Culture, Community and Youth (MCCY). The NADC will hear cases of possible anti-doping rule violation and decide on the appropriate consequences.
Decisions made by the NADC or alternative hearing body may be appealed. Depending on the status of the athlete, the appeal may be heard by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) or the National Anti-Doping Appeals Committee (NAAC). The NAAC is a national appeals body independent of ADS and NSAs, and is appointed by the MCCY.
Consequences of Doping
Usage of Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods may result in very sever health consequences, as well as sporting, financial, legal and social consequences.
Physical and Mental Health
Physical Health: Depending on the substance, the dosage and the consumption frequency, doping products may have particularly negative side effects on health. Some damages for the body are irreversible and may put one’s life in great danger.
Mental Health: Some doping substances may not be detrimental to the body but exercise an impact on mental health. It has been scientifically evidenced that anxiety, obsessive disorders or psychosis are direct consequences from doping.
The existence of an athlete who was charged as guilty for doping may be completely disrupted. Other than health consequences, it may also be prejudicial to the fame, respect and creditworthiness. Even in the future, negative findings are regularly questioned by the media and the entourage. The damage to the reputation will remain in the collective unconscious and the athlete could remain isolated.
In elite sport, an infringement of anti-doping rules often leads to a loss of income, the reimbursement of prize moneys and even the sponsorship money. An athlete suspended for several years, or even banned for life, cannot earn his/her living as usual and can even be forced into debt to live on a day-to-day basis.
A doping violation may mean loss of results, rankings, medals and qualification places at events. It could also have an impact on members of the same team, causing medals to be lost.
Doping may have major legal consequences. A sanctioned athlete may not take part in sport competition or in organized training sessions.
Sanctions for violating anti-doping rule violations may range from a reprimand to a lifetime ban. The period of ineligibility may vary depending on the type of anti-doping rule violation, the circumstances of each case, the substance, and the possible repetition of an anti-doping rule violation.
For in-competition testing, this will automatically include disqualification of results attained in the competition and the forfeit of any medals, points, and/or prizes. All results of any competitions following collection of the sample may also be disqualified.
An athlete or athlete support personnel who is serving a period of ineligibility arising from an anti-doping rule violation committed in a sport is not allowed to participate in any other sport at any level during the period of ineligibility.
Under the Anti-Doping Singapore’s (ADS) Anti-Doping Rules, as well as the World Anti-Doping Code, ADS is required to publish information of the Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) once a decision has been handed down by the relevant tribunal.